Research proves that Fluency Formula is successful
at reducing the fluency gap for lower performing students.
An independent third-party evaluation of Fluency Formula
was conducted during the 2003-2004 academic year. Participants were
second-grade students in two diverse suburban districts within close
proximity to a major city. From a total of 12 participating classrooms,
six were randomly assigned to the Fluency Formula condition and six
to the control condition.
Results revealed that low-ability Fluency Formula students achieved
a statistically significant, educationally exemplary learning advantage
over similar students not using Fluency Formula. Improvements in fluency
were positively and strongly correlated to improvements in reading comprehension.
Throughout the research, Fluency Formula was universally well received
by participating teachers and students. Fidelity of implementation was
extremely high, as was students' engagement and motivation with the
The conclusion: Fluency Formula can help lower-performing students
begin to catch up in only a single school year!
Fluency Formula Research Papers
Second-Grade Study Long Island, New York 20032004 (PDF)
Second-Grade Study Long Island, New York 20032004: Executive Summary
What is Fluency?
(PDF) by Maryanne
(PDF) by Kevin Feldman
Fluency Instruction (PDF) by Timothy
Fluency and the
English-Language Learners (PDF) by Calvin