Research and Results

  Fluency Forumula Second Grade Study Long Island, New York 2003-2004
Research proves that Fluency Formula is successful at reducing the fluency gap for lower performing students.

An independent third-party evaluation of Fluency Formula was conducted during the 2003-2004 academic year. Participants were second-grade students in two diverse suburban districts within close proximity to a major city. From a total of 12 participating classrooms, six were randomly assigned to the Fluency Formula condition and six to the control condition.

Results revealed that low-ability Fluency Formula students achieved a statistically significant, educationally exemplary learning advantage over similar students not using Fluency Formula. Improvements in Fluency is...fluency were positively and strongly correlated to improvements in reading comprehension. Throughout the research, Fluency Formula was universally well received by participating teachers and students. Fidelity of implementation was extremely high, as was students' engagement and motivation with the program.

The conclusion: Fluency Formula can help lower-performing students begin to catch up in only a single school year!


Fluency Formula Research Papers

Effectiveness Report
Fluency Formula Second-Grade Study Long Island, New York 2003–2004 (PDF)
Fluency Formula Second-Grade Study Long Island, New York 2003–2004: Executive Summary (PDF)

Professional Papers
What is Fluency? (PDF) by Maryanne Wolf
Fluency Assessment (PDF) by Kevin Feldman
Guided Fluency Instruction (PDF) by Timothy Rasinski
Fluency and the English-Language Learners (PDF) by Calvin L. Gidney