Aldrin, Buzz
Aldrin was the second person to step on the Moon, on July 20, 1969.

Apollo program
The Apollo program was the successful U.S. effort to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth.

Armstrong, Neil A.
Armstrong was the first person to step on the Moon, on July 20, 1969.

People trained to participate in U.S. spaceflights are called astronauts ("sailors of the stars"). Those involved in Russian spaceflights are known as cosmonauts ("sailors of the universe").

The process by which heated gases rise from the Sun's interior to its surface.
core The innermost part of the Sun; it is hot, extremely dense, and believed to fill a relatively small volume.

electromagnetic spectrum
The range of light in all its forms, from long radio waves to short gamma radiation. Visible light is a small segment near the middle of the spectrum.

Patches of hot, glowing gases that carry heat upward from the Sun's interior to its surface.

The Soviet Luna probes were the first spacecraft to pass near, to impact, and to photograph the Moon. They also included the first spacecraft to land on, orbit around, and automatically return samples from the Moon.

Lunar Excursion Module
The LEM was the transport vehicle used by Apollo astronauts to travel between the Command Module in lunar orbit and the surface of the Moon.

nuclear energy
Energy released in a nuclear reaction, such as the fusion of atomic nuclei in the Sun's interior.

A relatively large-sized body that orbits a star; the solar system has two types of planets: rock, or terrestrial, planets, such as the Earth, and immense bodies of liquid and gas, such as Jupiter.

Ranger program
The U.S. Ranger program sent a series of spacecraft to the Moon in the early 1960s. Prior to crashing on the Moon, each Ranger spacecraft took hundreds of close-up photos of the lunar surface that could be used for increased accuracy in mapping.

solar system
The Sun and the bodies that orbit around it, including planets and their moons, comets, and asteroids.

A body whose mass is so great that atomic nuclei in its interior fuse, releasing enormous amounts of heat and light.

Surveyor program
The U.S. Surveyor program landed automatic spacecraft on the Moon during the mid-1960s, prior to the start of the Apollo program.

The Sun is the center around which the Earth and the other planets of our solar system revolve. It's a rather ordinary star of average size. Even so, it is more than 1,392,000 km (865,000 mi) across — more than 100 times the diameter of Earth. Its mass equals that of 333,420 Earths! It resembles a huge furnace, fired by nuclear energy at its core. The tremendous energy produced is transferred outward, away from the core, in a process known as convection. Patches of gas heat and rise toward the surface. The tops of these heated patches of gas, which are called granules, can be seen in photographs of the Sun's surface — the surface has a mottled appearance created by a pattern of bright granules separated by darker spaces called intergranular lanes. As the energy reaches the Sun's surface, circulating currents of solar gas carry it away. The energy radiates in all directions and at practically all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, from long radio waves to short ultraviolet and X rays. Because the Earth is so small and so distant from the Sun, it receives only about one-half of one-billionth of the total solar-energy output. But this energy makes all life possible. It provides us with food and oxygen by way of green plants. Directly or indirectly, it provides us with energy to light and heat our homes and power our machines.

For centuries, people dreamed of visiting the Moon. These dreams became a reality in the second half of the 20th century. First, the United States and the Soviet Union sent unmanned spacecraft to the Moon, to photograph its surface and help determine the best sites for landings. Meanwhile, manned spacecraft were being launched into orbits around the Earth, to give people a chance to test equipment and to study the effects of space travel on the human body. Then, building on these successes, the United States developed the Apollo program. Its goal was to fly astronauts around the Moon and land them there. The first Apollo spacecraft to fly to the Moon was Apollo 8, which entered lunar orbit and then returned to Earth in December 1968. After two additional Apollo missions, astronauts were ready to try a lunar landing. Apollo 11 was launched from Cape Kennedy (later renamed Cape Canaveral), Florida, on July 16, 1969. Four days later, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made the first footprints on the Moon. There were several more Apollo missions to the Moon during the early 1970s. No one has visited since then, but explorations of the Moon have continued via unmanned spacecraft.

The following topics will help you explore the sun and the moon. Looking at the articles, images, and other materials in this Research Starter may give you more ideas. Each topic has one or more articles to start you on your research, but remember that it takes more than one article to make a research paper. Continue your research with our list of articles below.

What were some of the steps needed to put a man on the moon?

Apollo program
Space Exploration
Armstrong, Neil A.

What did scientists learn from gathering material from the moon?
Lunar Excursion Module

How do scientists study the Sun?
Corona (Sun)
Why is the Sun so hot?
Solar Flare
Solar Radiation
What is the history of the Sun and the moon?
Astronomy, History of
Solar Cycle
Stellar Evolution

Aldrin, Buzz
Apollo program
Armstrong, Neil A.
Astronomy, History of
Corona (Sun)
Fusion Energy
Luna (spacecraft)
Luna Flights Timeline
Lunar Excursion Module
  Solar Cycle
  Solar Flare
  Solar Radiation
  Solar System
  Solar Wind
  Space Exploration
  Stellar Evolution

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APOLLO Manned Missions
History of each Apollo mission, including photos and diagrams. Part of the National Air and Space Museum site.

Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin's official Web site features his biography, news, articles, media clips, and more.

CNN - Technology: Space
CNN offers an extensive collection of latest news, feature articles, and in-depth specials relating to space technology and exploration.

Earth and Sky Homepage
Online companion to the award-winning science radio series offers a daily chart of celestial events with hyperlinks to a pronunciation guide, articles, news, FAQ, and more.

Frank Potter's Science Gems: Earth Science
Dozens of sites for earth science education are identified by category, subcategory, and grade level by physicist and educator Frank Potter and his associates. A treasure trove for teachers, parents, and students. Very easy to navigate. Recommended.

History of Astronomy
An excellent, comprehensive index of sites relating to the history of astronomy. Includes online science archives and libraries, museums, biographies, bibliographic resources, and information on the history of science. Wonderful site for researchers.

History of Space Exploration
An outstanding NASA site which provides a detailed history of space exploration. Includes a chronology, detailed mission summaries, educator guides, and additional resources. Highly illustrated and highly recommended.

Inconstant Moon: multimedia tours of the lunar surface
Intended as both an introduction to lunar astronomy for the beginner and a reference point for the more experienced observer, the site offers nightly lunar tours, an online encyclopedia, a lunar atlas, and more. Maintained by Web designer Kevin Clarke.

Mars Exploration
The official NASA site of the Mars Exploration Program has extensive and authoritative information about the remarkable mission as well as detailed findings, photographs, and illustrations.

Overview of lunar facts, with linked data, images, animations, related lunar information sites.

Mysteries of Deep Space
Companion Web site to the PBS series 'Mysteries of Deep Space,' with transcripts of its episodes--"To the Edge of the Universe," "Exploding Stars and Black Holes," and "The Search for Alien Worlds,"--a universe time line, classroom activities, and more.

NASA Apollo 11 30th Anniversary

The NASA History Office Web site devoted to the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. Includes links to astronaut biographies and interviews, image galleries, online documents, time lines, and related Web sites.

NASA Astronaut Biographies
Official NASA biographies of the U.S. astronauts are provided and include illustrations and extensive career histories. Listed alphabetically. Also searchable and browsable by mission.

Nine Planets: A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System

This online text offers an interesting introduction to study of the planets along with many hyperlinked images and references.

NOVA Online : Stationed in the Stars
Online companion to NOVA program originally broadcast in April 2000 about the construction of the International Space Station. Contains interactive blueprints, video of space construction, a section on gravity, and teacher's guide.

Russian Archives Online > The Gallery > Yuri Gagarin p.1
A detailed biography of Juri Gagarin, illustrated with numerous photographs and slides from the Russian State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documents. In English.

Science in Space
Guide to Web resources on the Sun-Earth interaction for K-12 students. Divided into sections "Sunspots," "Solar Wind," "Solar Flares," "Fusion," "Plasma," "Magnetic Field," "Earth's Atmosphere" and "The Sun's Layers." From Liberty Science Center, N.J.

Sky and Telescope
Online edition of 'Sky and Telescope' magazine contains more than 500 pages devoted to astronomy news, stars and planets, satellite observing, meteors, comets, asteroids, eclipses, telescopes and binoculars, sky-watching tips, and resources.

Solar Radiation Data and Maps
Provides current and historical information on solar radiation of U.S. cities.

Solar System Simulator
Maintained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Web site provides a realistic simulator that accurately displays our solar system from many defined points of reference, as well as an excellent collection of pictures, movies, facts, and Web sites.
Latest news about all aspects of astronomy and space exploration from scientific discoveries to book and TV reviews to commercial projects to UFOs. Maintained by former CNN anchor Lou Dobbs.

Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS)
Site provides data on astronomy, the planets, space exploration, rocketry, and links to a variety of other useful pages.

An outstanding site, part of a large site on the solar system. Provides extensive and in-depth information about the Sun. Easy-to-navigate, highly illustrated, and highly recommended.

World Radiation Data Centre
Page provides information on the organization and allows users to view online data and maps of solar radiation.