Aldrin was the second person to step on the Moon, on July 20, 1969.
The Apollo program was the successful U.S. effort to land men on
the Moon and return them safely to Earth.
Armstrong was the first person to step on the Moon, on July 20,
People trained to participate in U.S. spaceflights are called astronauts
("sailors of the stars"). Those involved in Russian spaceflights
are known as cosmonauts ("sailors of the universe").
The process by which heated gases rise from the Sun's interior to
core The innermost part of the Sun; it is hot, extremely dense,
and believed to fill a relatively small volume.
The range of light in all its forms, from long radio waves to short
gamma radiation. Visible light is a small segment near the middle
of the spectrum.
Patches of hot, glowing gases that carry heat upward from the Sun's
interior to its surface.
The Soviet Luna probes were the first spacecraft to pass near, to
impact, and to photograph the Moon. They also included the first
spacecraft to land on, orbit around, and automatically return samples
from the Moon.
The LEM was the transport vehicle used by Apollo astronauts to travel
between the Command Module in lunar orbit and the surface of the
Energy released in a nuclear reaction, such as the fusion of atomic
nuclei in the Sun's interior.
A relatively large-sized body that orbits a star; the solar system
has two types of planets: rock, or terrestrial, planets, such as
the Earth, and immense bodies of liquid and gas, such as Jupiter.
The U.S. Ranger program sent a series of spacecraft to the Moon
in the early 1960s. Prior to crashing on the Moon, each Ranger spacecraft
took hundreds of close-up photos of the lunar surface that could
be used for increased accuracy in mapping.
The Sun and the bodies that orbit around it, including planets and
their moons, comets, and asteroids.
A body whose mass is so great that atomic nuclei in its interior
fuse, releasing enormous amounts of heat and light.
The U.S. Surveyor program landed automatic spacecraft on the Moon
during the mid-1960s, prior to the start of the Apollo program.
Sun is the center around which the Earth and the other planets of our
solar system revolve. It's a rather ordinary star of average size. Even
so, it is more than 1,392,000 km (865,000 mi) across more than
100 times the diameter of Earth. Its mass equals that of 333,420 Earths!
It resembles a huge furnace, fired by nuclear energy at its core. The
tremendous energy produced is transferred outward, away from the core,
in a process known as convection. Patches of gas heat and rise toward
the surface. The tops of these heated patches of gas, which are called
granules, can be seen in photographs of the Sun's surface the surface
has a mottled appearance created by a pattern of bright granules separated
by darker spaces called intergranular lanes. As the energy reaches the
Sun's surface, circulating currents of solar gas carry it away. The energy
radiates in all directions and at practically all wavelengths of the electromagnetic
spectrum, from long radio waves to short ultraviolet and X rays. Because
the Earth is so small and so distant from the Sun, it receives only about
one-half of one-billionth of the total solar-energy output. But this energy
makes all life possible. It provides us with food and oxygen by way of
green plants. Directly or indirectly, it provides us with energy to light
and heat our homes and power our machines.
For centuries, people
dreamed of visiting the Moon. These dreams became a reality in the second
half of the 20th century. First, the United States and the Soviet Union
sent unmanned spacecraft to the Moon, to photograph its surface and help
determine the best sites for landings. Meanwhile, manned spacecraft were
being launched into orbits around the Earth, to give people a chance to
test equipment and to study the effects of space travel on the human body.
Then, building on these successes, the United States developed the Apollo
program. Its goal was to fly astronauts around the Moon and land them
there. The first Apollo spacecraft to fly to the Moon was Apollo 8, which
entered lunar orbit and then returned to Earth in December 1968. After
two additional Apollo missions, astronauts were ready to try a lunar landing.
Apollo 11 was launched from Cape Kennedy (later renamed Cape Canaveral),
Florida, on July 16, 1969. Four days later, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
made the first footprints on the Moon. There were several more Apollo
missions to the Moon during the early 1970s. No one has visited since
then, but explorations of the Moon have continued via unmanned spacecraft.
page includes links outside of Scholastic.com
Every Web site we link to was visited by our team at one point in
time to make sure it's appropriate for children. But we do not monitor
or control these sites and these sites can change. In addition,
many of these sites may have links to other sites which we have
not reviewed. Be sure to get permission from your parents or teacher
History of each Apollo mission, including photos and diagrams. Part
of the National Air and Space Museum site.
Buzz Aldrin's official Web site features his biography, news, articles,
media clips, and more.
CNN - Technology: Space
CNN offers an extensive collection of latest news, feature articles,
and in-depth specials relating to space technology and exploration.
Earth and Sky Homepage
Online companion to the award-winning science radio series offers
a daily chart of celestial events with hyperlinks to a pronunciation
guide, articles, news, FAQ, and more.
Frank Potter's Science Gems: Earth Science
Dozens of sites for earth science education are identified by category,
subcategory, and grade level by physicist and educator Frank Potter
and his associates. A treasure trove for teachers, parents, and
students. Very easy to navigate. Recommended.
History of Astronomy
An excellent, comprehensive index of sites relating to the history
of astronomy. Includes online science archives and libraries, museums,
biographies, bibliographic resources, and information on the history
of science. Wonderful site for researchers.
History of Space Exploration
An outstanding NASA site which provides a detailed history of space
exploration. Includes a chronology, detailed mission summaries,
educator guides, and additional resources. Highly illustrated and
Inconstant Moon: multimedia tours of the lunar surface
Intended as both an introduction to lunar astronomy for the beginner
and a reference point for the more experienced observer, the site
offers nightly lunar tours, an online encyclopedia, a lunar atlas,
and more. Maintained by Web designer Kevin Clarke.
The official NASA site of the Mars Exploration Program has extensive
and authoritative information about the remarkable mission as well
as detailed findings, photographs, and illustrations.
Overview of lunar facts, with linked data, images, animations, related
lunar information sites.
Mysteries of Deep Space
Companion Web site to the PBS series 'Mysteries of Deep Space,'
with transcripts of its episodes--"To the Edge of the Universe,"
"Exploding Stars and Black Holes," and "The Search
for Alien Worlds,"--a universe time line, classroom activities,
NASA Apollo 11 30th Anniversary
The NASA History Office Web site devoted to the 30th anniversary
of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. Includes links to astronaut biographies
and interviews, image galleries, online documents, time lines, and
related Web sites.
NASA Astronaut Biographies
Official NASA biographies of the U.S. astronauts are provided and
include illustrations and extensive career histories. Listed alphabetically.
Also searchable and browsable by mission.
Nine Planets: A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System
This online text offers an interesting introduction to study of
the planets along with many hyperlinked images and references.
NOVA Online : Stationed in the Stars
Online companion to NOVA program originally broadcast in April 2000
about the construction of the International Space Station. Contains
interactive blueprints, video of space construction, a section on
gravity, and teacher's guide.
Russian Archives Online > The Gallery > Yuri Gagarin p.1
A detailed biography of Juri Gagarin, illustrated with numerous
photographs and slides from the Russian State Archive of Scientific
and Technical Documents. In English.
Science in Space
Guide to Web resources on the Sun-Earth interaction for K-12 students.
Divided into sections "Sunspots," "Solar Wind,"
"Solar Flares," "Fusion," "Plasma,"
"Magnetic Field," "Earth's Atmosphere" and "The
Sun's Layers." From Liberty Science Center, N.J.
Sky and Telescope
Online edition of 'Sky and Telescope' magazine contains more than
500 pages devoted to astronomy news, stars and planets, satellite
observing, meteors, comets, asteroids, eclipses, telescopes and
binoculars, sky-watching tips, and resources.
Solar Radiation Data and Maps
Provides current and historical information on solar radiation of
Solar System Simulator
Maintained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Web site provides
a realistic simulator that accurately displays our solar system
from many defined points of reference, as well as an excellent collection
of pictures, movies, facts, and Web sites.
Latest news about all aspects of astronomy and space exploration
from scientific discoveries to book and TV reviews to commercial
projects to UFOs. Maintained by former CNN anchor Lou Dobbs.
Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS)
Site provides data on astronomy, the planets, space exploration,
rocketry, and links to a variety of other useful pages.
An outstanding site, part of a large site on the solar system. Provides
extensive and in-depth information about the Sun. Easy-to-navigate,
highly illustrated, and highly recommended.
World Radiation Data Centre
Page provides information on the organization and allows users to
view online data and maps of solar radiation.