amphibious warfare
A military operation launched from the sea by naval and landing forces which involve landing on a hostile shore.

Method of fast-moving, air-and-land warfare first used extensively in World War II. Used effectively by German armies invading Poland in 1939 and the Low Countries and France in 1940. U.S. Gen. George C. Patton employed blitzkrieg tactics effectively in 1944.

Operation Sea Lion
Code name for German invasion plans of Great Britain, postponed indefinitely in October 1940, after the Luftwaffe (German air force) failed to win the Battle of Britain.

Operation Barbarossa
Code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union, launched on June 22, 1941.

Operation Crusader
Code name for British offensive in North Africa (November 1941) that pushed German Gen. Erwin Rommel back to El Agheila in Libya, where he had begun his African offensive a year earlier.

Operation Torch
Code name for Allied North African campaign for landing on Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts in 1942, the first American appearance in the European theater of war.

Operation Overlord
Code name for the Allied invasion of Europe, launched across the English Channel, under the supreme command of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, on June 6, 1944 (known as D-Day).

Omaha Beach
Code name for one of the American invasion sites in Normandy on June 6, 1944. During the operation, American troops met heavy German fire before securing a bridgehead.

Utah Beach
Code name for the westernmost landing site in Normandy on June 6, 1944. Assaulted by U.S. troops of the U.S. VII Corps under the command of Gen. Omar Bradley.

Operation Market
Allied airborne effort aimed at capturing the bridgehead at Arnhem in the Netherlands, in conjunction with the land operation known as Garden. Site of British defeat in 1944.

Operation Valkyrie
German plan to mobilize reserve army units and to seize control after the planned assassination of Adolph Hitler, in July 1944. The plan failed and its leaders, including Count von Stauffenberg, were executed.

British intelligence operation that cracked the German secret code during World War II. The collection phase of Ultra consisted of intercepting German radio messages (which had been encrypted by their Enigma machines) and passing them through a secret computerlike device that rendered them into clear German. The intelligence gathered was passed on to Allied officials for utilization on the battlefield.

Vergeltungswaffen, weapons of vengeance. This pilotless buzz bomb was used by the Germans to attack London from sites in German-occupied France beginning in 1944.

Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

World War II: Military Operations
From a strategic perspective, what is most significant about World War II is that it featured the first use of truly global tactics for offensive operations. Military operations launched from the sea on to hostile shores – amphibious warfare – proved to be a successful strategy during the war, as shown by Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. The surprise attack, as demonstrated by the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, was also critical to military victory.

How significant was the element of surprise for World War II's offensive operations? What strategies were used to confuse the enemy?
World War II (Part 1)

How significant was careful, painstaking planning to the ultimate success of military operations?
intelligence operations

How significant was the element of surprise for the Japanese offensive that began on Dec. 7, 1941?
 World War II (Part 1)

Discuss the importance of military intelligence during World War II, particularly in regard to D-Day on June 6, 1944.
World War II (Part 2)

Discuss the role of the general in World War II, including Erwin Rommel, George S. Patton and Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Rommel, Erwin
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
Bradley, Omar N.

World War II (Part 1)
World War II (Part 2)
World War II (Part 3)
intelligence operations
strategy and tactics, military
amphibious warfare
Britain, Battle of
Normandy Invasion
Manhattan Project
Rommel, Erwin
Montgomery of Alamein, 1st Viscount
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (factsheet)
Bradley, Omar N.
Patton, George S.
Stauffenberg, Claus, Graf Schenk von

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Documents Related to World War II
Hundreds of documents related to World War II are cataloged by year. Prepared by a professor of international affairs at Mount Holyoke College.

Produce For Victory
An exhibition of posters related to World War II, Posters on the Home Front (1941-45), includes brief descriptions and links to related Web sites. From the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution.

NOVA Online : Holocaust on Trial
Online companion to NOVA program originally aired in Oct. 2000 examining a Holocaust denial trial in Britain. Features a time line of Nazi abuses, a narrative of the trial, a section on historical revisionism, links, and teacher's guide.

USAF Museum - Japanese Balloon Bombs in WWII
Article on the Japanese balloon bombs used on the western coast of the United States during World War II. Includes a photograph and links to related Web sites. From the Air Force Museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio.

The National World War II Memorial
Background on the World War II Memorial being built in Washington, D.C. Describes the project's purpose and development. Includes pictures of the design and of the building site. Maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission.

USAF Museum World War II History Gallery
History of the Air Force in World War II includes maps, photographs, and aircraft links. Extensive data on European and Pacific theaters as well as on women and celebrities in the Air Force. From the USAF Museum at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base.

American Experience / War Letters
Materials accompanying the film 'War Letters,' aired in 2001 by the Public Broadcasting System, include a film synopsis, transcript, bibliography, U.S. military time line, and text of select letters featured in the film.

20th Century History
Vast collection of annotated links to Web resources for 20th-century history, ranging from all major wars and crises to NATO to the Titanic to Mao Zedong. From the link promotion service of Web-hosting company Cannylink.

United States Military Operations
Extensive guide to American wars and military operations with U.S. participation, from the American Revolution to the late 20th century. Detailed profiles of operations, with links to related resources. From the American Federation of Scientists.

Imperial War Museum - the national museum of war and conflict
Web site of the Imperial War Museum in London, a unique museum in its coverage of conflicts, especially those involving Great Britain and the Commonwealth, from WWI to the present day.

HyperWar: World War II on the World Wide Web
History of World War II, focusing on military/service histories, politics and diplomacy, and the Pacific and European theaters. Includes an extensive bibliography and a glossary.

World War II Poster Collection

Searchable collection of over 200 World War II posters from the Government Publication Department of Northwestern University. Links to related Web sites.

WW2 Peoples War
BBC Online provides a detailed article on daily life during World War II, with photos, statistical graphs, and links to related materials.

NOVA Online : Decoding Nazi Secrets
Online companion to NOVA program originally broadcast in November 1999 focusing on Allied quest to decode Nazi ciphers during WWII. Includes a wealth of interactive materials on cryptology and WWII espionage; with teacher's guide and links.

Intelligence Resource Program
The Federation of American Scientists' Intelligence Resource Program offers a wealth of information on intelligence systems and programs, agencies and budgets, documents and records, and satellite and other images. Links to related Web sites.

Dr. Edward Teller
Part of the Academy of Achievement Web site, these pages provide a biography, interview, and profile of Dr. Edward Teller, with illustrations, audio, and video. Extensive, interesting, and highly recommended.

LANL Research Library: History
Los Alamos National Laboratory' s Research Library provides detailed information regarding the development of the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos.

Atomic Archive - Explore the History, Science, and Consequences of the Atomic Bomb
Online companion to the CD-ROM 'Atomic Archive' explores the complex history surrounding the invention of the atomic bomb. Includes biographies of key scientists, a time line, documents, maps, photos and videos, a teacher's guide, and more.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library & Museum
The Web site of the Eisenhower Library provides extensive information about the life and times of the 34th president. Site includes texts of selected speeches and guides to library resources and events.

Booknotes Transcript
Transcript of C-SPAN's 1996 interview with Carlo D'Este, discussing his book 'Patton: A Genius for War.'